Ref NoDL1152
Alt Ref NoDL1152
Artist or CreatorDavid Low (1891-1963)
Title or CaptionRecognition.
Extent1 item
Published byEvening Standard
Date16 Dec 1936
Size30.5 x 44.5cm
Techniqueblack ink/blue crayon
Embedded text or transcript"The better atmosphere in Anglo-Italian affairs was welcomed in both countries. It was suggested that if Mr. Eden would only recognise Italy in Abyssinia, Franco in Spain and, say, Italy in the Balearic Isles, things might be even cordial ..... Mr. Eden replied that he recognised these things only too well ...."
Main route of the Empire
Keys to the Mediterranean
Fascist Bloc
Person DepictedEden; Anthony, (1897-1977); Earl of Avon,
Mussolini; Benito (1883-1945)
Franco; Francisco (1892-1975)
Hitler; Adolf (1889-1945)
NotesMussolini first attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in December 1934 and followed this skirmish up with a full-scale invasion in October 1935. Italy was a permament member of the Council of the League of Nations, whose Covenant pledged cooperation rather than aggression in international affairs. Britain was also a permanent Council member. The obligation of the League and its members to condemn Mussolini's aggression should have been clear. The League did announce sanctions against Italy. However, these sanctions were ineffective as they did not include sanctions on oil, which would have greatly hindered Italy's war effort. Moreover, remaining Council members, Britain and France, were operating behind the scenes to appease Mussolini out of vested interests. Britain was reluctant to provoke Mussolini, concerned as she was for the safety of her naval bases in the mediterranean. As a result, Britain refused to close the Suez canal to Mussolini, without which Italy would have had grave trouble supplying her troops. Britain also issued a guns embargo on both nations, to the grave detriment of Abyssinia whose military might was far inferior to that of Italy. British self-interest compounded French behaviour, which had seen the Franco-Italian pact whereby France acknowledged Italian right to areas of Abyssinia in return for alliance against Germany. A secret Anglo-French agreement was concocted between the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Samuel Hoare, and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval. The Hoare-Laval Pact agreed to distribute the choice areas of Abyssinia to Italy, leaving the Abyssinians with little more than a barren wasteland. This treaty was leaked to the press and denounced. Both Hoare and Laval were forced to resign. Eden then became British Foreign Secretary. Eden recognised the error of appeasement of fascist nations by European powers, understanding that it would lead to greater aggression on their part, and to potential collusion between them.
SubjectsBritish Empire
International relations
Spanish civil war
foreign policy
Copyright contact detailsNorthcliffe House, 2 Derry Street, London W8 5TT
Location of artworkReturned to Beaverbrook Foundation, 1998
Relates to cartoonDL1152

Show related Persons records.

GB/BCA/216Eden; Anthony, (1897-1977); Earl of Avon1897-1977   
GB/BCA/58Mussolini; Benito (1883-1945)1883-1945   
GB/BCA/315Franco; Francisco (1892-1975)1892-1975   
GB/BCA/394Hitler; Adolf (1889-1945)1889-1945Born in Austria. Politician and leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party). He served as German chancellor from 1933-1945 and head of state (Fuhrer) from 1934-1945. He established a single-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideals of national socialism. He gained support for his views on German nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-capitalism and anti-communism through his impassioned speeches and propaganda. He wanted to establish a New Order of absolute rule in Europe and pursued a policy of seizing land by force for the Aryan people.  
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